Genital System

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The scrotum is the thick-skinned sac that surrounds and protects the testes. The scrotum also acts as a climate-control system for the testes because they need to be slightly cooler than body temperature for normal sperm development. The cremaster muscles in the wall of the scrotum relax to allow the testes to hang farther from the body to cool or contract to pull the testes closer to the body for warmth or protection. The testes are oval bodies that average about 1. Usually the left testis hangs slightly lower than the right one. The testes have two primary functions:.

Reproduction

Producing testosterone the primary male sex hormone. The epididymis consists of a single coiled microscopic tube that measures almost 20 feet 6 meters in length.

The Female Reproductive System

The epididymis collects sperm from the testis and provides the environment for sperm to mature and acquire the ability to move through the female reproductive system and fertilize an ovum. One epididymis lies against each testis. The vas deferens is a firm tube the size of a strand of spaghetti that transports sperm from the epididymis. One such duct travels from each epididymis to the back of the prostate and joins with one of the two seminal vesicles.

In the scrotum, other structures, such as muscle fibers, blood vessels, and nerves, also travel along with each vas deferens and together form an intertwined structure, the spermatic cord. The urethra serves a dual function in males.

Key points

This channel is the part of the urinary tract that transports urine from the bladder and the part of the reproductive system through which semen is ejaculated. The prostate lies just under the bladder and surrounds the urethra. Walnut-sized in young men, the prostate enlarges with age. The cervix is the narrow entryway in between the vagina and uterus.

The cervix is flexible so it can expand to let a baby pass through during childbirth. The vagina is like a tube that can grow wider to deliver a baby that has finished growing inside the uterus. The hymen covers the opening of the vagina.

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It is a thin piece of tissue that has one or more holes in it. Sometimes a hymen may be stretched or torn when you use a tampon or during a first sexual experience. If it does tear, it may bleed a little bit. The vulva covers the entrance to the vagina. The vulva has five parts: mons pubis, labia, clitoris, urinary opening, and vaginal opening. The mons pubis is the mound of tissue and skin above your legs, in the middle. This area becomes covered with hair when you go through puberty. The labia are the two sets of skin folds often called lips on either side of the opening of the vagina.

The labia majora are the outer lips, and the labia minora are the inner lips. It is normal for the labia to look different from each other. The clitoris is a small, sensitive bump at the bottom of the mons pubis that is covered by the labia minora. The urinary opening , below the clitoris, is where your urine pee leaves the body. The vaginal opening is the entry to the vagina and is found below the urinary opening.

These tubes allows passage of the egg from the ovary to the uterus. The tubal ostium is the point at which the tubal canal meets the peritoneal cavity, while the uterine opening of the Fallopian tube is the entrance into the uterine cavity, the uterotubal junction. Uterine Segments : Illustrative drawing of the anterior view of the uterus showing the uterine segments. There are two types of cells within the simple columnar epithelium of the Fallopian tube. Ciliated cells predominate throughout the tube, but are most numerous in the infundibulum and ampulla.

Estrogen increases the production of cilia on these cells. Interspersed between the ciliated cells are peg cells, which contain apical granules and produce the tubular fluid. This fluid contains nutrients for spermatozoa, oocytes, and zygotes.

The secretions also promote capacitation of the sperm by removing glycoproteins and other molecules from the plasma membrane of the sperm. Progesterone increases the number of peg cells, while estrogen increases their height and secretory activity. Tubal fluid flows against the action of the ciliae, toward the fimbrated end. When an ovum is developing in an ovary, it is encapsulated in a sac known as an ovarian follicle. The egg is caught by the fimbriated end and travels to the ampulla where typically the sperm are met and fertilization occurs.

The fertilized ovum, now a zygote, travels towards the uterus aided by the tubal cilia and tubal muscle.


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After about five days, the new embryo enters the uterine cavity and implants about a day later. Occasionally, the embryo implants into the Fallopian tube instead of the uterus, creating an ectopic pregnancy. The vagina is the female reproductive tract and has two primary functions: sexual intercourse and childbirth. The vagina, a female sex organ, is a fibromuscular tubular tract that has two main functions: sexual intercourse and childbirth.

In humans, this passage leads from the opening of the vulva to the uterus, but the vaginal tract ends at the cervix.

reproductive system

Vagina : The vagina is the most immediate internal female reproductive organ. This diagram also indicates the ovaries, uterus, and cervix. The vaginal opening is much larger than the urethral opening. During arousal, the vagina gets moist to facilitate the entrance of the penis. The inner texture of the vagina creates friction for the penis during intercourse. The vaginal opening is at the caudal end of the vulva behind the opening of the urethra.

The upper quarter of the vagina is separated from the rectum by the rectouterine pouch. The vagina and the inside of the vulva are a reddish-pink color, as are most healthy internal mucous membranes in mammals. A series of ridges produced by the folding of the wall of the outer third of the vagina is called the vaginal rugae.

These transverse epithelial ridges and provide the vagina with increased surface area for extension and stretching. The membrane of the vaginal wall also produces moisture, although it does not contain any glands. The hymen is a membrane of tissue that surrounds or partially covers the external vaginal opening. The tissue may or may not be ruptured by vaginal penetration.

Reproductive system - Wikipedia

It can also be ruptured by childbirth, a pelvic examination, injury, or sports. The absence of a hymen may not indicate prior sexual activity. Similarly, its presence may not indicate a lack of prior sexual activity. However, the vagina as a whole has insufficient nerve endings for sexual stimulation and orgasm; this lack of nerve endings makes childbirth significantly less painful. Research indicates that clitoral tissue extends considerably into the vulva and vagina. During sexual arousal, and particularly clitoral stimulation, the vaginal walls lubricate to reduce friction caused by sexual activity.

With arousal, the vagina lengthens rapidly to an average of about 4 in. As the woman becomes fully aroused, the vagina tents expands in length and width , while the cervix retracts. The walls of the vagina are composed of soft elastic folds of mucous membrane which stretch or contract with support from pelvic muscles to the size of the inserted penis or other object, stimulating the penis and helping the male to experience orgasm and ejaculation, thus enabling fertilization.

Some women experience intense pleasure if the G-Spot is stimulated appropriately during sexual activity. During birth, the elasticity of the vagina allows it to stretch to many times its normal diameter. The vagina is often referred to as the birth canal in the context of pregnancy and childbirth. The vulva is the external genitalia of the female reproductive tract, situated immediately external to the genital orifice.

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