Resilience, Reciprocity and Ecological Economics: Northwest Coast Sustainability

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Continue shopping. Results 1 - 14 of United Kingdom. Search Within These Results:. This increases the chance of spread of malaria due to more human contact and a higher number of the blood sucking insects surviving and living longer. Mosquitoes are also highly sensitive to changes in precipitation and humidity. Increased precipitation can increase mosquito population indirectly by expanding larval habitat and food supply.

Increased temperature is causing snow to melt and stagnant pools of water to become more common. Climate change has a direct impact on people's health in places where Malaria is not prevalent. In communities of higher altitudes in Africa and South America , people are at higher risk for developing malaria in recent years because of an increase temperature. Mosquitos are sensitive to temperature changes and the warming of their environment will boost their rates of production.

The population at risk of malaria in the absence of climate change is projected to double between and to million, however; unmitigated climate change would, by the s, further increase the population at risk of malaria by another to million. If there is a slight discrepancy in the normal temperature, the perfect conditions for the insects to multiply are created.

People that have never been infected before are unknowingly at risk for this deadly disease and do not have the immunity to combat it.

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It is important to track the prevalence, species and number of insects carrying the disease as well as the number of humans infected in countries and places that have never seen malaria before. It is simple for the slightest of fluctuation in temperature to cause a catastrophic epidemic that has the possibility to end the lives of many innocent and unsuspecting people.


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Dengue fever is an infectious disease caused by dengue viruses known to be in the tropical regions. The cases of dengue fever have increased dramatically since the s and it continues to become more prevalent. There are four different types of viruses in dengue fever.

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If someone is infected with one type of dengue virus, he or she will have permanent immunity to that type of dengue virus, but will have short term immunity to the other type of dengue fever. Dengue fever used to be considered a tropical disease , but climate change is causing dengue fever to spread. Dengue fever is transmitted by certain types of mosquitoes , which have been spreading further and further north. This is because some of the climate changes that are occurring are increased heat, precipitation and humidity which create prime breeding grounds for mosquitoes.

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Another influence is the changing El Nino effects that are affecting the climate to change in different areas of the world, causing dengue fever to be able to spread. There are many things that can be done, both on a governmental level and on an individual basis.

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One improvement would be having a better system of detecting when dengue outbreaks may happen. This can be done by monitoring environments, such as temperatures, rainfall and humidity that would be attractive to these types of mosquitoes and help them to flourish. Another useful plan is to educate the public by letting them know when a dengue outbreak is occurring and what they can do to protect themselves.

For example, people should create a living environment that is not attractive to mosquitoes no standing water , dress in appropriate clothing light colours, long sleeves , and wear insect repellent. More specifically, maximum temperature has been found to play the most influential variable in sustaining tick populations. The effect of climate on the tick life cycle is one of the more difficult projections to make in relation to climate and vector-borne disease.

Unlike other vectors, tick life cycles span multiple seasons as they mature from larva to nymph to adult. The expansion of tick populations are concurrent with global climatic change. Species distribution models of recent years indicate that the deer tick, known as I. Additionally, however, tick populations are expected to retreat from the Southeastern coast of the U. Tick populations are not only spreading wider, but moving to higher elevations. In Colorado, the Rocky Mountain wood tick known as D. A case study testing climatic interaction affecting tick vector D.

Initial symptoms of tick-borne infections are generally quite similar to that of other viral illnesses. This includes fever, headache, fatigue, and general malaise. If Lyme disease is unrecognized, misdiagnosed, or improperly treated it can lead to much more severe and serious consequences with the spread of the spirochete to joints, heart, and nervous system causing arthritis, carditis, cranial nerve palsies or encephalopathy and cognitive dysfunction. With regard to the effects of a warming world and the expansion of tick populations to previously unexposed areas, adaptive keys to prevention will include expansion of health care infrastructure and pharmacologic availability, as well as education of people and providers as to the risks of disease and preventative measures they can take.

In the face of these expanding threats, strong collaboration between government officials and environmental scientists is necessary for advancing preventative and reactive response measures. Without acknowledging the climate changes that make environments more habitable for disease carriers, policy and infrastructure will lag behind vector borne disease spread. While the physical health impacts of climate change are well known, the impact on mental health has only begun to be recognized in the last decade. One must recognize the multiple meanings and cultural narratives associated with climate change, as well as how climate change, global phenomena like increased population, are interrelated.

Climate change does not impact everyone equally; those of lower economic and social status are at greater risk and experience more devastating impacts. Direct impacts on mental health happen when a community experiences extreme weather and changed environment. This leads to communities facing economic aspects, especially for communities that use agriculture as a main source of income. After economic fall, communities face loss of livelihoods and poverty. Many communities will also face isolation, alienation, grief , bereavement, and displacement from these effects.

The rate of effects on mental health increases in already-vulnerable communities. Indirect impacts on mental health occur via impacts on physical health and community wellbeing. Physical health and mental health have a reciprocal relationship. They are threats to emotional wellbeing through concern and uncertainty about future risks. Extreme weather events play a major role here; their impacts can be indirect, not just direct. Each extreme weather event effects humans in different ways, but they all lead to the decline of mental health. The World Health Organization presents the fact that high extreme heat is directly related to certain ailments like cardiovascular disease , respiratory disease , and asthma.

One piece of their evidence is that in summer , during Europe's big heat wave, there were 70, recorded deaths related to the heat. As climate change continues, heat will continue to rise and these problems will exacerbate. These physical problems lead to mental health problems. As physical health worsens and is less curable, mental stability starts to deteriorate. As extreme heat makes landscapes dry, nature is more prone to fire.

Research shows that rising heat due to climate change has caused an increase in fires around the United States. Deaths of family and friends cause individuals to suffer from stress and other conditions. Many suffering from loss of family and friends will internalize their emotions, feel extreme guilt and helplessness, and become paranoid. Others will develop fear of future loss and have an overall displacement of feelings that could last for years.

For every one-degree Fahrenheit , there will be nine more murders in the country, which leads to an additional 24, murders or assaults per year in the United States. There is also an increased risk in suicide in communities that suffer from extreme weather events. Studies show that suicide rates increase after extreme weather events. This is evidence for the decline in mental health. After the event, farmers were left with almost nothing.

They were forced to sell their belongings, reduce their stock, and borrow large sums of money to plant crops at the start of the next season. More than one hundred farmers in the Australian countryside had committed suicide by They face issues like those who have lost loved ones due to fire: grief, sadness, anger, paranoia , and others. Some impacts pertaining to mental health are even more gradual and cumulative than the others, like social interaction , media , and communication.

Communities choose to migrate, or are forced to migrate, due to stressors on limited resources. This is worsened by extreme weather events caused by climate change. Drug abuse and alcohol abuse are also common aftereffects, and can lead to both physical and mental issues, addiction and substance reliance being the most common. The effects of Hurricane Katrina , a past extreme weather event in New Orleans , lead to a variety of mental health problems due to the destruction of resources [61] Many people impacted by Hurricane Katrina were left homeless , disenfranchised, stressed, and suffering physical illness.

This strain on the public health system decreased access and availability of medical resources. However, some communities may be unable to implement adaptation strategies, and this will create added stress, further exacerbating already existing mental health issues.

Less medication and medical resources means fewer people can get the help they need to recover. Slowed recovery and lack of recovery worsen overall mental health.

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Psychological impacts are the effects that heat, drought , migrations, and climate-related conflicts have on social life and community life. This includes post-disaster adjustment. The early separation of kids from their parents can cause symptoms of grieving, depression, and detachment in both the young and old. Two groups may fight over remaining natural resources.

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